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The Court must consider whether an objective adult observer in the Dover community would perceive the challenged ID Policy as an endorsement of religion because the unrefuted evidence offered at trial establishes that although the disclaimer is read to students in their ninth grade biology classes, the Board made and subsequently defended its decision to implement the curriculum change publicly, thus casting the entire community as the "listening audience" for its religious message. In those Board meetings, open to the public at large, several Dover School Board members advocated for the ID Policy in expressly religious terms, with their comments reported extensively in the local newspapers, as will be discussed in detail below. Religion is again mentioned in the second "Frequently Asked Question" as it poses the question "Isn't ID simply religion in disguise? The news reports in the York newspapers were followed by numerous letters to the editor and editorials published in the same papers. Although Defendants have strenuously objected to Plaintiffs' introduction of the letters to the editor and editorials from the 's effect prong. The 225 letters to the editor and sixty-two editorials that Plaintiffs have offered constitute what Plaintiffs' counsel believe to be the entire set of such materials published in the York newspapers serving the Dover community during the period from June 1, 2004 through September 1, 2005, which includes the time period from the first Board meetings in which the proposal to change the biology curriculum was announced through the approximate starting date of the trial in this case. Otherwise, government would be free and able to sponsor religious messages simply by declaring that those who share in the beliefs that it is espousing are the message's only intended recipients. These meetings were such that members of the public not only attended them, but also had the opportunity to offer public comment on the proposal. Within this newsletter, the initial entry under the heading "Frequently Asked Questions" demeans Plaintiffs for protecting their Constitutional rights as it states, "A small minority of parents have objected to the recent curriculum change by arguing that the Board has acted to impose its own religious beliefs on students." (P-127 at 1). Because the endorsement inquiry is not about the perceptions of particular individuals, Plaintiffs do not argue before the Court that any particular letter or editorial, or the views expressed therein, can or should supplant this Court's consideration of the curriculum change from the standpoint of a reasonable observer. Instead, the Court looks to the hypothetical reasonable observer as a "personification of a community ideal of reasonable behavior, determined by the [collective] social judgment." at 780. We are in agreement with Plaintiffs that when a governmental practice bearing on religion occurs within view of the entire community, the reasonable observer is an objective, informed adult within the community at large, even if the specific practice is directed at only a subset of that community, as courts routinely look beyond the government's intended audience to the broader listening audience. at 597 ("when evaluating the effect of government conduct under the Establishment Clause, we must ascertain whether 'the challenged governmental action is sufficiently likely to be perceived by adherents of the controlling denominations as an endorsement, and by the nonadherents as a disapproval, of their individual religious choice'") (quoting Ball, 473 U. First, the Board brought the public into the debate over whether to include ID in the curriculum as it proposed, advocated, and ultimately approved the ID Policy in public school board meetings. Although formatted like a typical district newsletter, an objective adult member of the Dover community is presumed to understand this mailing as an aggressive advocacy piece denigrating the scientific theory of evolution while advocating ID. at 779 (O'Connor, J., concurring in part and concurring in judgment). Accordingly, not only are parents and other Dover citizens part of the listening audience for the Board's curriculum change , but they are part of its "intended audience" as well. The public is invited to visit the studios of painters, sculptors, jewelers, potters and more! Iration is a deep-rooted indie band whose reggae influences are fused with elements of pop and rock to create a smooth original sound. The 219'er, at 219 First Ave., hosts live music from 9 p.m. Free and open to the public ages 21 and older; non-smoking environment. (doors open at 9 p.m.), following the Festival at Sandpoint. Mobius Riff will be featured in Live on the Lawn, hosted by Mick Duff's Brewing Hall from 2-5p.m. The Cottage Thrift Store, a division of Panhandle Special Needs and located at 1410 N. It's gonna be a rock party as George Thorogood and the Destroyers bring their "high-energy boogie-blues" sounds to Memorial Field. Spokane, and teams make their way 185 miles through 15 cities en route to the finish line at Sandpoint's City Beach. Unknown Locals present Secret Shame, with performances at p.m. The Two Tracks have a sound that borrows from country, rock, and bluegrass traditions to give audiences a memorable Americana experience. Pend d'Oreille Winery, 301 Cedar St., hosts live music from 5 p.m. With an eclectic, acoustic sound, Jacobs' music style encompasses folk, rock and soul. Free and open to the public ages 21 and older only; non-smoking environment. Pizza by Mandala Pizza on the back patio.20 Mac Beth. Opening act features Shakespeare Theater students from the Music Conservatory of Sandpoint. Come in to the 219 Lounge, 219 First Ave., for Game Night with Racheal from 7 p.m. It's a fun night of games, beers and cocktails with one of Sandpoint's favorite bartenders. Lake Pend Oreille Cruises hosts a Solar Eclipse Cruise from 9 a.m. The Shawnodese will take passengers out towards the islands of Hope while watching the sun (complimentary eyeware protects eyes) slowly disappear; mid-cruise will be in virtual darkness at the peak of the eclipse. 208-255-5253 or visit Lake Pend Oreille 22 Night-Out Karaoke. Come celebrate the artistic community in the greater Sandpoint area! featuring Marty Perron and Doug Bond.11 Festival at Sandpoint: Iration/The Wailers. Get your dancing shoes on with one of the area's best country rock bands! First Ave., hosts annual Aftival concert series at 10 p.m. Enjoy locally grown produce, baked goods, arts and crafts, plus live music with Bright Moments Jazz featuring Maya Goldblum. Regional pilots fly into Sandpoint Airport, or Dover Bay for seaplanes, during the 12th Annual Fly-In featuring a breakfast and aircraft display. 208-255-9954 12 Live Music on the Lawn: Mobius Riff. featuring Truck Mills.12 Festival at Sandpoint: George Thorogood and the Destroyers. The 10th annual "Scenic Relay Race" where runners and walkers begin atop Mt. Sponsored by the museum, Pine Street Dental, and Sandpoint Parks and Recreation.18-19, 25-26 Secret Shame. Pizza by Mandala Pizza on the back patio.19 The Two Tracks and Moonshine Mountain in Concert. First Ave., hosts a concert featuring The Two Track and Moonshine Mountain, starting at p.m. First Ave., hosts live music with The Incredible Flying Dookie Brothers from 9 p.m. It's time to dance to this incredible Sandpoint rock group who will be playing a range of classic rock songs. Sponsored locally by Lost Horse Press.20 Game Night with Racheal. A once-in-a-lifetime opportunity to experience an almost complete solar eclipse while out on the lake! David Chambers, geophysicist and recognized expert on tailings impoundment engineering, will give a presentation at p.m. The Dover Adult Education Centre was the first integrated learning centre in Kent and is surrounded by Dover's history.

Shop for local produce, baked goods, arts and crafts, plus enjoy live music. SKa L Taproom in Ponderay hosts an open mic from 5 p.m. Gates open at 6 p.m., and the show starts at 7 p.m. Tickets are at the door or online at Panida.org; ticket price includes both the show and dessert! E-mail Dave to learn more at [email protected] IPA Live Music. Free and open to the public ages 21 and older only; non-smoking environment. Pizza out back by Mandala Pizza.27 Game Night with Racheal. The 219 Lounge, 219 First Ave., hosts Night-Out Karaoke with DJ Pat every Tuesday from 9 p.m. Come out and sing to your heart's content, or just enjoy the show! More information available at https://and 208-255-8862. Bring your dog and enjoy a Panhandle Animal Shelter benefit with live music, food and beverages available for purchase, plus a fenced-in area for dogs. Biology took away our status as made in the image of God' . Even those individuals who had no children, never attended a Dover Board meeting, and never concerned themselves with learning about school policies, were directly confronted and made the "listening audience" for the District's announcement of its sponsorship of a religious viewpoint. It is additionally important to note that our determination to consider the letters and editorials is in line with the Supreme Court's decision in In Epperson, the Supreme Court pointed to letters to the editor in a local newspaper as support for its conclusion that "fundamentalist sectarian conviction was and is" the reason that Arkansas enacted its statutory prohibition against teaching evolution in public schools. We have now found that both an objective student and an objective adult member of the Dover community would perceive Defendants' conduct to be a strong endorsement of religion pursuant to the endorsement test.Thus, the February 2005 newsletter was an astonishing propaganda discourse which succeeded in advising the few individuals who were by that time not aware that a firestorm had erupted over ID in Dover. Having so concluded, we find it incumbent upon the Court to further address an additional issue raised by Plaintiffs, which is whether ID is science. Of course, there‚Äôs no one-size-fits-all, but their number one criteron make sense to us: an emphasis in profile questions on mutual interests and honest self-representation over looks and sexual prowess. Bowling Green State University professors of gerontology, Dr. The study authors also delved into the question of which features make a dating site a good fit for seniors."In simple terms, on a molecular level, scientists have discovered a purposeful arrangement of parts, which cannot be explained by Darwin's theory. Moreover, and as will be explained below, the letters to the editor and editorials are relevant and probative of the community's collective social judgment that the challenged conduct advances religion. Moreover, a review of the letters and editorials at issue reveals that in letter after letter and editorial after editorial, community members postulated that ID is an inherently religious concept, that the writers viewed the decision of whether to incorporate it into the high school biology curriculum as one which implicated a religious concept, and therefore that the curriculum change has the effect of placing the government's imprimatur on the Board's preferred religious viewpoint. These exhibits are thus probative of the fact that members of the Dover community perceived the Board as having acted to promote religion, with many citizens lined up as either for the curriculum change, on religious grounds, or against the curriculum change, on the ground that religion should not play a role in public school science class. The Supreme Court quoted from three letters published in the Accordingly, taken in the aggregate, the plethora of letters to the editor and editorials from the local York newspapers constitute substantial additional evidence that the entire community became intertwined in the controversy of the ID Policy at issue and that the community collectively perceives the ID Policy as favoring a particular religious view.

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